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Models On The Government-charity Relations
When talking about the relations between government and charity organizations, Benjamin Gadroon, Ralph Kramer and L. M. Salomon have a systematic description on this topic. In their theories, there are two keys in all kinds of welfare services, that are the capital collection and authority, and the actual service. The two movements can be illustrated by different systems. They offered 4 models on the government-charity relations.
Government-Dominant Model. In this model, government takes up a predominate position in money collection and service supply. Government is both the main offer of fund and welfare service. Upon the principle, government collects money from the tax system, and employs workers to supply essential service.
Third-Sector-Dominant Model. In this model, the charity organizations play dominant role in fund collection and service supply. The reason for the birth of this model is complicated, which may root in ideology or religions which show intense opposition to the government-offered service; or because some regions have no demands for social service. Third-Sector-Dominant model and the former Government-Dominant Model are respectively in the polarization of relations between government and non-profitable organizations.
Dual Model. This is the very model in the middle of the former two models. In this mixed model, both government and the third sector get involved in the money collection and the services proceed, however, they are dually limited within their own regions. This model can resolve two different forms: non-profitable organizations complete the nation provided service through offering the clients who can't receive the same level of governmental services; or the third sector complete the governmental servicing duty by offering the services which don't account for the government movement. On the two occasions, the most obvious feature is that two grant but relatively independent auto-controlled systems on fund collection and service supply.
Collaborative Model. In this kind of relations, government and the third sector develop the public service together, but separately. The most typical situation is government offers capital, while the third sector provides services. The cooperation model includes two forms: in collaborative-vendor model, non-profitable organizations are only identified as the representatives of governmental program management, which have little right to decide or bargain; the other form is collaborative-partnership model, in which the non-profitable organizations have much self-govern and decision-making right, and more right to speak up. For a long time, people mistakenly thought only government offer capital that the charity organizations can be controlled and the collaborative-vendor model is the most common. In fact the collaborative-partnership model is the right answer to our social reality.